Abstracts of Success Stories to be
Presented at Third Global Conference
John Fowkes and Patrick
Govinda P. Dhital,
Center for Community Development and Research (CCODER)
CREATING A 'GLOBAL FAMILY' BY LINKING COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND TOURISM :A Case Study of Community Development in Nepal
CCODER (Center for Community Development and Research) is a Nepalese non-profit non-governmental organisation. Since 1990, CCODER is promoting Community Development through an innovative approach comprising organization, education and social and economic development of disadvantaged communities in remote hill areas of Nepal. The "Community Tourism Programme" started in 1998. One of its main aims is to link Community Development and Sustainable Tourism through the generation of income, employment and local markets for agricultural products and handicrafts. Equally important aims are the provision of incentives for afforestation and nature conservation and the creation of a 'global family' through the encounter between rural Nepalis and foreign tourists during village homestays, resulting in mutual understanding and learning. Experiences with the first group of American tourists who visited the project area in 1998 shows that through 'Community Tourism' it is possible to build two-way bridges between the developing and the developed world for Human Peace. Community Tourism is a rural enterprise planned, owned and operated by the local people. It is a group activity, and benefits are shared among as many villages and individuals as possible. CCODER assists the communities in the develop-ment of tourism products, training, infrastructure improvements, networking and marketing and promotion. During a "Village Trek" in the famous Gorkha region, visitors can experience rural life and Nepalese hospitality off the beaten path with all the beautiful scenery and cultural diversity of Nepal. In the villages, tourists stay with host families and are accomodated in individual guestrooms. They can try a delicious, hygienically prepared Nepali "Daalbhaat" consisting of locally-produced rice, lentils and garden-fresh, organically grown vegetables prepared by their hosts. Special educational and interaction programs for locals and visitors can be arranged as well.
Diana Mcintyre Pike
TURTLE ISLAND, A PARADISE RE-FOUND
January 2000 marks 20 years of operation for Turtle Island - a premium, private island resort located in the Yasawa Islands, approximately 50 miles northwest of Fiji's main island Viti Levu. During that time, Turtle Island has hosted thousands of guests from throughout the world, who have been exposed to a unique approach to Sustainable Tourism. This experience has enabled them to have a greater appreciation of the Fijian people and their culture, and a more complete understanding of what can be achieved through responsible tourism practices. This has come about due to a deeply held sense of commitment to underlying values about the way in which the resort interacts with its various local communities, and to the role of the guests as stakeholders in that interaction. When owner Richard Evanson first came to Turtle Island in 1972, it was uninhabited and barren. It had suffered from decades of abuse by early European settlers. With the assistance of only a handful of local Fijians, incredible personal diligence and an unwavering vision, Richard and his staff started a massive effort to rebuild the natural and human fiber of the Island through a wide array of highly successful environmental and social programs. The case study discussion will focus on these programs including: · massive tree planting/reforestation program · development of furniture making industry · development of ecological zones · turtle protection program · policies regarding minimizing human impact · self sufficient vegetable and hydroponic gardens · establishment of a charitable Foundation to assist seven local villages · Medical Clinics - medicos donate their time each year to provide health services to Fijians in the area · Establishment of a permanent medical facility on the Island · Vuaki Mission School Fund · performing arts and cultural activities on the Island · use of traditional Fijian architecture, artifacts and furniture
Chinara Sadykova and Gulmira
SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIOLOGICAL AND LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC
The Kyrgyz Republic contains a great wealth of biodiversity resources - in terms of species, ecosystems and landscapes. Although a small nation by land mass, the Kyrgyz Republic displays a wide variation in elevations and geology, leading to broad range of habitats, which is reflected in a high diversity of species. The ecosystems represented range from high mountains, to lowland fertile plains and large freshwater systems. The character of biodiversity in the country reflects the high altitude of much of the land, being dominated by montane and alpine species. A range of factors over the last century have had an impact on biodiversity in the Kyrgyz Republic, resulting in declines in many groups, and leading to concern for a growing number of species, including key ones of economic importance. The first obligation once countries have ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is the production of a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (BSAP). The Kyrgyz Republic ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity on 6th August 1996. One of the first commitments of the Kyrgyz Republic government under the CBD was to prepare BSAP as an initial stage in biodiversity protection. This BSAP provides a thorough review and assessment of current biodiversity and the factors affecting it within the country. The BSAP has been designed following a participatory planning exercise involving Government agencies, NGOs, Local Administrations, Academic Institutions and the private sector. The Biodiversity Strategy comprises a number of inter-related strategic components (or approaches to conservation), which when applied together will fulfil the aim and objectives of this plan. One of the strategic components is: Sustainable use of biological and landscape diversity. This approach recognises the importance of development and implementing appropriate ecotourism activities. A NGO from the Kyrgyz Republic and Fauna and Flora International from UK formed the Ecological NGO Consortium. The Ecological NGO Consortium prepared a National Code of Conduct for Sustainable Tourism. The development of a Code of Conduct for Sustainable Tourism will not only affect the activities of NGO, but also benefit the people, economy and environment of the Kyrgyz Republic.
Ms. Nyamtseren Odinchimeg
DESIGNING TRAVEL THROUGH MISSION
Many non-profit organizations have started offering tours to their members. Alumni associations, museum groups, and environmental organizations all have entered into this arena, and started travel programs. One new program has had tremendous success as a start-up program, and serves as an example for the importance of keeping travel relevant to an institution's mission and work. The National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA), the nation's only advocacy organization dedicated solely to the United States National Park System, launched its first slate of park-related tours in 1997. The program was named Parkscapes. Parkscapes was an immediate success because of its focus. Every Parkscapes tour has been devoted to showcasing the U.S. National Park System. Members quickly recognized the value of traveling to national parks with an organization dedicated to park preservation and protection. The content of NPCA's tours touched on new ground, and included such themes as park management, park comparisons, park resource protection and park-specific issues. Parkscapes may represent the future of association-sponsored travel. Tying travel into the mission of an organization achieves differentiation in a competitive market, encourages traveler loyalty, and supports the over-arching goals of the organization.
TOURISM AT PEACE ACROSS NEWLY OPENED BOUNDARIES:The case of Israel and Jordan
The Israeli-Jordanian border has opened for mutual visits of the citizens of both countries several years ago, following a peace treaty signed after 45 years of enmity. Contrary to the peace between Egypt and Israel defined as ëcold peaceí, the relationships between Israel and Jordan were defined as ëwarm peaceí. The objective of this study is to follow and analyze the development of tourism encounters across the Israeli-Jordanian boundary in comparison to the tourism contacts developed across the Israeli-Egyptian border. Quantitative indicators suggest that tourist trips are more intense in the former case, however, it is not entirely clear whether this is related to the different peace atmosphere or to the shorter distance involved. A more detailed study of the Israeli Arab citizens reveals a preference for visits in Jordan as opposed to Egypt. This is partially attributed to several socio-cultural variables such as old family ties, shared Arab dialect, and positive perception of the Jordanian people. It is associated for a lesser degree with the special atmosphere of peace that is said to exist between the two countries.
Adams Dambe Chilisa
OVERVIEW OF PEACE AND TOURISM
BALTIC SEA REGION: THE BALTIC SEA TOURISM COMMISSION EXPLORING A NEW TOURISM SEGMENT - CRUISING
... The Baltic Sea cruise travel market proves that co-operation and competition can work in collaboration and increase tourism for a number of countries in economic transition .
The Baltic Sea Region generally relates to the eleven countries surrounding the Baltic Sea and is an area that shares a common goal of developing sustainable tourism. Tourism cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region started in the early 1980's and focused on the importance of protecting the environment in order to develop a high quality tourism destination. As a result of this, the Baltic Sea Tourism Commission (BTC) was founded in 1983 on an initiative of the German Lübeck Chamber of Commerce. The objective of the BTC is to promote the natural and sustainable development of tourism in, and to, the Baltic Sea Region. Although there was agreement on the importance of protecting the environment, attempts to introduce joint principles were not made until the mid 90s which coincided with the fall of the iron curtain and the liberation of the Baltic states. In 1997 BALDER, a tourism development and co-operation program for the Baltic Sea Region, was introduced and acknowledged by country tourist boards, cities, and regions around the Baltic Sea. The BTC is a non-profit association made up of a Board of Management of 20 persons (from 16 different countries), a small and effective secretariat, and an Executive Director. BTC members represent varied sectors interested in inbound tourism including cities, regions, air carriers, ferry companies, tour operators, hotel chains, and cultural institutions.
Griffith University - Australia
THE CRC FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM: An Experiment in Partnership
The Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) for Sustainable Tourism was established by the Australian government in 1997 as a collaborative research partnership between government, industry and the university sector. The mandate of the CRC for Sustainable Tourism is to deliver strategic knowledge to the Australian tourism industry in a timely fashion, in order to ensure the sustainability of the sector. This paper outlines and critically assesses various elements of this initiative, which includes the following: the use of sustainability as a workable organisational paradigm, an emphasis on applied as opposed to basic research, and the delivery of knowledge on the basis of industry rather than academic timelines. The extent to which the CRC for Sustainable Tourism can be used, with adaptation and modification, as a framework for destinations within and outside of Australia is also discussed.
In 1635, the Reverend William Blackstone settled in a river valley 50 miles south of Boston. The river took the name of Rhode Island's first European settler. The powerful Blackstone River stretches 45 miles from Worcester, Massachusetts to Providence, Rhode Island. In 1790, an immigrant from England started a revolution that moved America from an agrarian to an industrial economy. Samuel Slater had the ingenuity to unleash the potential of the Blackstone River. He dammed the river and built a textile-spinning mill, the first in America. A thousand textile mills sprang up along the River. Millions of immigrants came to the Valley. After 150 years of growth it fell upon hard economic times. In the 1940's a slow economic decline began leaving behind abandoned mill buildings, a polluted river and high unemployment. In the 1970's thoughts of sustainable economic change began. Change was based on a pride-of-place, sound employment and an appropriate quality of life. Commitment, confidence, leadership and creativity were the tools of change. By the 1980's, "Valley-wide systemic regeneration" emerged. It wanted to reclaim a strong industrial base, maintain community values and draw domestic and international visitors. It offered the world its culture, heritage and environment as a working exhibit. It was authentic; it was the "real" story. In 1986 the US Congress designated the Valley a National Heritage Corridor and in 1998 the Blackstone was designated an American Heritage River by President Clinton. How is the Valley accomplishing regeneration with residents, political leaders, federal agencies, businesses and national and international visitors? Robert Billington and Natalie Carter will present a workshop to explain the collaborative steps the communities have taken to achieve its goals.
Researcher - United Kingdom
LINKING LOCAL TO GLOBAL: A Tourism Study of Bromo Tengger Semeru - East Java
Tourism to the national park of Bromo Tengger Semeru, in East Java, Indonesia, focuses on the sacred volcano of Mount Bromo. Tourists trek or ride horses across an arid sand sea and climb to the crater rim to watch the dawn, while smaller numbers drive to an alternative viewpoint, and a few climbers venture to the summit of Mount Semeru, Java's highest mountain. Bromo is a popular destination for foreign tourists, the majority of whom originate from other countries in Asia, while domestic tourists make up 70 per cent of the 130,000 annual visitors. Tourism to Bromo is of great economic benefit to the local Tenggerese people, to the wider region of East Java and to the country as a whole. A much higher level of local involvement in tourism (around 75 per cent of households) was revealed by recent research than is recognised by regional tourism officials, and the industry has compensated to some extent for a recent downturn in income from agriculture. Rather than being marginalised by tourism, the Tenggerese have retained control over important elements of the product. Social welfare indicators are higher in the villages which host tourists than in other villages around the national park which are unaffected by tourism, and levels of exploitation of natural resources within the park and its buffer zone appear to be lower amongst the people who are involved in tourism than amongst those who are not. But tourism is highly susceptible to civil politics, and the political and economic turmoil in Indonesia in the late 1990s has caused a decline in tourism - with a consequent drop in income from this sector. It remains to be seen whether this has resulted in a return to over-exploitation of natural resources around Bromo as it has in other areas of the country.
Dr. Tom Hinch (Presenter),
Univ. of Alberta - Canada
Mäori tourism operators face a number of challenges in the pursuit of sustainability. Leading these challenges is the desire to create respect and appreciation among visitors for traditional and contemporary Mäori ways of life, thereby protecting fundamental Mäori cultural values. This paper is based on the analysis of staff and management interviews conducted at three successful Mäori based attractions in New Zealand: Tamaki Tours (Rotorua), Te Papa Tongarewa (Wellington), and Whale Watch (Kaikoura). Sixteen common strategies emerged from the analysis that appeared to be instrumental to the success of all three attractions. These strategies have been grouped into the following general categories: Staffing policies. All three attractions are successful at fostering a strong sense of pride among their staff, empowering staff to make their own decisions as consistent with Mäori values, providing strong leadership, and offering genuine hospitality by fostering a whänau (family) working environment. Visitor experience. All three attractions provide experiences that are authentic, emotional and spiritual, present traditional and contemporary cultural perspectives, are accessible to people of all cultures, and which have been developed in consultation with tribal elders to respect traditional protocol. Resource base. All three attractions give priority to their role as caretakers of cultural resources so that integrity can be maintained through their conduct of appropriate protocol and respect for Mäori beliefs. Business approach. All three attractions have achieved standards of excellence, global reputation and differentiation in what they offer to visitors. Each of the attractions continue to strive towards longer term visions so that they main remain at the forefront of indigenous tourism at an international level. While there is no single recipe for success, Tamaki Tours, Te Papa and Whale Watch all appear to have achieved a favourable mix between economic and cultural outcomes.
University of Durban - South Africa
TOURISM AS A SOCIO-ECONOMIC STRATEGY FOR DEVELOPMENT: case studies from South Africa.
The paper presents two case studies of tourism development in which the author had a professional involvement as a consultant. One in a township on the outskirts of Durban and the second in a rural area in KwaZulu-Natal. The case studies are discussed in comparative perspective in an attempt to understand the development framework in which tourism can play a part for the uplifting of the previously disadvantaged communities. The author was commissioned in 1997 by the Durban Metro Council to carry out an investigation into the tourism potential of Inanda that could kick start the socio-economic upgrading of the area. The research had the objective of addressing tourism as a possible market opportunity which, to some extent, would put in motion the local economy and would unlock other constraining factors at the socio-cultural and institutional level. The township of Inanda at approximately 27km from the city of Durban is rich in historical and cultural heritage and through the development of tourism is reclaiming its history and cultural identity. It hosts a number of national monuments in memory of prominent religious and political leaders such as: Ghandi who established the Ghandi settlement for the Indian community, the Ohlange Institute built in 1900 for the education of black youth by the first president of the ANC, Dr. J.L. Dube, and the headquaters of the Shembe Church. In 1998 a non-governmental organisation, the Business Support Centre (BSC) mandated the Centre for Partnership in Enterprise Research and Technology Transfer (CEPERTT) to carry out an investigation into the potential of craft skills in Loteni. The analysis was to achieve an understanding of the socio-economic dynamics that could either constrain or encourage a broader demand for community-based tourism development. The research carried out by the author was to suggest basic criteria for a model of relating community-based small/medium enterprises (SMEs) to tourism development.
PILGRIMAGE AND CONTESTED SITES
Pilgrimage is traditionally perceived as promoting peace and international understanding between the pilgrims who are undertaking a journey as part of their individual spiritual quest. The end goal is usually a well known destination where devotional worship occurs, and where, ultimately, the pilgrim may experience an encounter with the Divine and undergo a mystical experience. Victor Turner particularly focused on the liminal stage of the pilgrimage journey (a rite de passage) and communitas which is supposed to occur in the pilgrimage process. Many authors found that communitas did not exist in practice in traditional religious pilgrimage, but the writer found two examples of this in recent research on modern, secular pilgrimage. One reason that communitas occurred was that the events were conducted at locations that were not contested sites. Both at traditional religious pilgrimage and modern, secular pilgrimage sites around the world there are, as has already been noted by some authors commenting on Western Christian pilgrimage, many instances of visitor conflict between mass tourists, locals and secular pilgrims. The writer also discusses sites where this is occurring, both in Europe and Australia. The challenge for those charged with the management of these sites and/or events is to ensure that all visitors - pilgrim and tourist alike - have the opportunity to experience the site, engage with others in a non-confrontational and peaceful way, and to have the opportunity of fulfilling their visit needs.
Federal University of Santa Catarina - Brazil
TOURISM ACTIVITY IN SUSTAINABLE WAYS:: A Study Case in Rancho Queimado City - Santa Catarina - Brazil
The necessity to promote the municipal development in a sustainable way has made possible the partnership between Rancho Queimado City Hall (South Region of Santa Catarina State - Brazil) and Federal University of Santa Catarina. Rancho Queimado Municipality is placed in the interior of Santa Catarina State, on the coast of Serra Geral with a diversified vegetation represented by Atlantic and Brazilian Pine forest. It has 3.000 inhabitants and the economy is based on small rural properties developed by agriculture and farm animals. It has a high diversity value of landscape that becomes more diversified by the existence of singularities such as houses and other improvement typically colonial, as also legacy left by the first inhabitants of this region, like Indians who were expulsed during the colonisation process, predominantly German, that began last century. The present case study characterizes itself as an exploratory study and its main objective is to verify the possibility of tourism activity development in Rancho Queimado Municipality, over the sustainable development. It is identified a great potential for the tourism activity, that must be developed through the application of Agenda 21, minimizing in this way the impacts caused by the traditional tourism. The research suggests a tourism activity oriented in a segmented way, directed for a particular type of tourist. In the case of the ecotourism it is represented by its natural and cultural attractiveness, for the proposed alternative it is motivated by esoteric, health or therapeutic, and scientific aspects. As a conclusion, it was presented some proposals that show the possibility of solutions being created for the development of touristic activities compromised with the principles of sustaintability are presented in diagrams.
SCOTTISH TOURISM AND ENVIRONMENT FORUM
The Scottish Tourism and Environment Forum is a multi organisational partnership established in 1994. The overall mission of the Forum is to bring long term business and environmental benefits to the Scottish tourism industry through encouraging sustainable use of our world class natural and built heritage. Research shows that over 80% of visitors are attracted by Scotland's environmental qualities. This paper will present the work of the Forum to date and highlight particular initiatives such as the Tourism Management Programmes for sustainable development in Scottish tourism destinations and the award winning Green Tourism Business Scheme. The scheme, which rewards improved environmental performance in energy, water and waste management in individual businesses including hotels, holiday parks and attractions now covers 10% of the bed stock in Scotland. The Interpretive Planning Handbook produced by the Forum has been widely distributed across Scotland and has proved a valuable tool in helping communities and agencies better explain what is special about their area to visitors. A new three year operational plan has just been released and this plots the way forward for sustainable tourism in Scotland and embraces new challenges including promoting best practice and a quality driven approach. The Forum is made up of a number of partners and demonstrates the importance of partnership in achieving objectives both at local and national level. Only by working together can the Forum move towards that aim of a local heart with a global beat.
The Uganda Community Tourism Association was established in July 1998 in Jinja, Uganda by sixty community members representing sixteen tourism and twenty-one craft community initiatives. As the tourism industry started to grow again in Uganda during the early 1990's, communities near "protected areas" discovered an opportunity - community based tourism. Uganda, as a tourism destination, had become more suited to the smaller scale, more environmentally friendly tourism, called eco-tourism. This suited the communities. In 1995, the first Community Tourism Services Workshop was held. This brought together twenty-eight community entrepreneurs from all over Uganda representing community groups who were presently operating campsites, dining facilities and indigenous guiding. Participants found a common thread in their development and after leaving the workshop continued to keep in touch. In the three years since the first workshop, the communities had gained the support of the North Carolina Zoological Park and the Uganda Tourist Board. The appointment of a resident programme co-ordinator by NCZP in Uganda provided ongoing support and advice. At the workshop in July 1998 the participants recognized that joining together would assist them in their development. UCOTA - The Uganda Community Tourism Association was born. The UCOTA membership represents two major areas: Eco-tourism and Craft. This includes: camp sites, rest camps, indigenous tour guides; dining facilities; information services; and crafts. Members are situated throughout Uganda and many enterprises adjoin National Parks. UCOTA established its overall objective in its Mission Statement To encourage quality community based tourism with the aim of benefiting communities through sustainable development. The Uganda Community Tourism Association will act as an "umbrella" organisation representing its members. It will become a "strategy" through which the members can develop and market their enterprise, as well as provide a focus for tourists who wish to obtain information about community tourism facilities or to purchase craftwork.Maria T. Bellot Tourism
Consultant - Dominica
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE NATURE ISLAND OF THE CARIBBEAN - A Case Study of Dominica
Dominica lies in the Windward Islands of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. It is volcanic in origin, extremely mountainous and rugged. A complete absence of the white sand beaches for which the Caribbean is known has kept Dominica out of the typical pattern of tourism development seen in almost every other Caribbean island. At the beginning of the 1980's Dominica was still considered disadvantaged in terms of its tourism potential. Nevertheless, Dominica began on a small scale to offer a nature/adventure tourist product including rainforest tours, birdwatching, and the very unique experience of hiking to the largest boiling lake of its kind in the world which is situated in the appropriately named Valley of Desolation. The advent and rapid success of ecotourism on a global basis helped Dominica to see itself in a new light and to recognize its mountainous beauty and pristine rainforests as important tourist attractions. Around 1987, diving and whale watching operations began. Today, Dominica is rated among the world's ten best locations for diving. The whalewatching business has grown and is recognized to have tremendous potential. These new uses of the marine resource necessitate sharing between communities, traditional users and tourism enterprises. Conservation of the island's resources has been an important principle guiding the work of the Division of Forestry for several years. In August 1998, Dominica received the prestigious award of having its 17000 acre Morne Trois Pitons National Park designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Because there are only a few options for economic development on such a small island there is increasing pressure for rapid expansion and growth on the tourism sector and new issues of balance and conservation are arising.
Nanyang Technological University - Singapore
WAR, PEACE AND TOURISM IN INDOCHINA
The paper is concerned with the history of war and atrocity in the period after the Second World War in Indochina and how this heritage is being used as a tourism resource to create visitor attractions which have the potential to contribute to increased international understanding and world peace. Several problems do, nevertheless, arise and these are discussed and the challenges facing those responsible for heritage interpretation and presentation are acknowledged. There is a need for honesty, integrity and authenticity at sites with a balance struck between education and entertainment. The importance of the participation in the decision making process of those whose heritage is depicted is stressed, while the difficulties of securing it recognised. It is concluded that such difficult material can be an appropriate subject for tourist attractions if handled with sensitivity and that a visit can leave both tourist and resident better informed about the past and more committed to a rejection of the violence commemorated. However, further research is necessary to better appreciate the attitudes and responses of hosts and guests to heritage sites and the effective management of such projects. upported many studies in the discipline of social psychology. In addition, sectorial and cultural specificity is suggested to address the unique characteristic of Hong Kong Chinese restaurant environment.
Prof.. Richard Butler, University
of Surrey, Guildford, and
SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
AND THE NORTH ATLANTIC PEACE DIVIDEND
Sanjay K. Nepal,
Protected Area Planning and Management Consultant - USA
VISITOR-RELATED NATURAL RESOURCE IMPACT MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE TOURISM: Case Studies from Protected areas in Mexico, Costa Rica and Chile.
The sustainability of tourism depends in part on preventing and mitigating natural resource impacts occurring in protected areas. Natural resource impacts may result from facility and infrastructure development and also from visitor activities, the latter of which is often overlooked. However, visitor activities potentially result in a variety of undesirable impacts including trail erosion, attraction feature degradation, water pollution, litter, and wildlife disturbance, among others. Fortunately, a variety of management strategies are available to help avoid or minimize visitor impacts; the selection of which, is based on criteria developed as part of a larger visitor impact management program. Visitor impact management programs include one or more of the following components: recreation or visitor activity management plans, informal or formal decision making frameworks (e.g., carrying capacity and the limits of Acceptable Change), visitor impact monitoring programs, and implementation of specific visitor impact management strategies. Although the majority of visitor impact management success stories have occurred in developed countries, developing countries have also begun to tackle visitor impact problems. This presentation will discuss successful visitor impact management initiatives currently occurring in three Latin American protected areas: Cuatro Cienegas in Mexico, Torres del Paine National Park in Chile and Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Costa Rica. Cuatro Cienegas has selected impact indicators, refined monitoring procedures, and trained staff to begin conducting visitor impact monitoring. Torres del Paine National Park has defined recreation zones and objectives as part of its general management plan, and has conducted an initial phase of trail and campsite impact monitoring. Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve has implemented a variety of successful visitor impact management strategies including trail maintenance, limiting the number of individuals on trails and requiring the use of guides.
Dr. Raphael Raymond Bar-On
Economic Statistician & Tourism Consultant, Advisor to ULAI Union of Local
Authorities in Israel
Community member, The Findhorn Foundation - Scotland
THE FINDHORN FOUNDATION AND THE ECO-VILLAGE PROJECT
Founded in 1962 in a caravan park in the northeast of Scotland, the Findhorn Foundation is internationally known for its experiment with new models for holistic and sustainable living. For over thirty five years the Foundation has offered non-sectarian, spiritual education to thousands of guests, and has dedicated its work to exploring both community and sustainability. In the early days Findhorn became well known for its beautiful gardens grown on the sand dunes of Findhorn Estuary. From this experience an Educational Programme was developed around the principle 'work is love in action' . From this, The Eco-village Project, which promotes a holistic approach to living, has been a natural progression. The project received a UN award for best practices in sustainable living in 1998. Over 4 000 people a year come to take part in our workshops, conferences and educational programmes. Recent conference themes include Creating Sustainable Communities (1998) A Call to Peace (1999) Forgiveness (November 1999) and Soul Education (November 2000). Many holiday makers and local people attend our events or visit our shop and cafe. The presentation will briefly put what the Findhorn Foundation is doing in context by looking at basic human needs (food, water, shelter, warmth and care) and how the human race uses the environment to supply those needs. Then continue looking at ways in which we are meeting those needs in a more environmentally conscious way, through our Eco-village project. We will look at in detail through slides and overheads, at how the Findhorn Foundation lives the Ecological, Social and Spiritual aspects of life, highlighting our village project which includes ecohouses, renewable energy and the Living Machine (our sewage treatment plant); our education programme which includes our Eco-Village training; our outreach work which includes staff training consultancy work with organisations such as The Earth Centre; and our daily practices.
Project Director - Trinidad and Tobago
THE BATTLE FOR TURTLE CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO.
Leatherback turtles nest on the east coast of Trinidad on beaches of Grande Riviere ,Matura and Fishing Pond during the months of April,May and June. During the 70's,appalled at the slaughter of female leatherbacks by proachers who hunt the turtles for its meat, I, and members of the field naturalist club, took it upon our selves to confront the hunters head on in order to stop this senseless slaughter.This exercise involved patrolling five miles of lonely coastline on foot and sometimes alone .At times,we undertook to do it on weekends when most of the hunting occurred.We would bike all the way to the east coast. I would hide my trailbike amongst the coconut trees and begin patrolling equipped with a fish gun for protection. There were several confrontations with poachers and at times life and death encounters. I persisted in my commitments,nevertheless, season after season. The print media was supportive of my efforts and made the wider society aware of the cruel slaughter of those utterly helpless creatures. The government was forced to setup armed patrols and game wardens began patrolling the beaches. Eventually, in the mid 80's, Matura,Fishing Pond and Grand Riviere were declared nesting sanctuaries for the leatherbacks,hawkbills and greenbacks.Today on the east coast of Trinidad turtles can come ashore and nest and not be hacked to death by poachers. Once upon a time you could count fifty (50) carcasses during the nesting season. These were all females because only females come ashore to lay eggs on the sand beaches.Today not a single carcass can be found. Several community based conservation groups have been founded to patrol the beaches and guide visitors. The Forestry department has also instituted official controls. And even I, Ishmael AngeloSamad cannot visit the nesting beaches without a permit. The implications for the future of the eco-tourist industry are evidently enormous .
Margot Sallows Manager,
TOURISM DIMINISHES THREAT
OF INDO-PAKISTAN WAR
International Gorilla Conservation Programme (AWF, FFI and WWF) - Africa
ECOTOURISM AS A TOOL FOR CONSERVATION AND THE FOSTERING OF PEACE IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION OF AFRICA
With the crisis in the Great Lakes region, starting in 1990 and continuing uninterruptedly to this date, the countries sharing the Albertine Rift forests, and habitat of the endangered mountain gorilla, have had strained political relations. Transfrontier collaboration for the conservation of these endangered forests and their wildlife has had to adapt to the constantly changing political climate. Yet only with collaboration is it possible to envisage sustainable conservation, which ensures both the protection of the critical habitat, with its rich biodiversity, and the effective sharing of the benefits of conservation with the people living around these forested parks. Concurrently, the mechanisms that enable partners to achieve the common goal of conservation together also develop confidence, thus forming the foundations for peace. In this context, the transfrontier collaboration towards a common goal is seen as the operative force towards the development of peace in the region. Conservation of the environment is one of the sectors in which much has been achieved. Transfrontier collaboration has, to date, been effective only at field level, between the park staff in the three countries concerned (Uganda, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo). Joint planning, consultation and joint implementation of activities, such as training and monitoring, have continued throughout the war and refugee crises. With the support of partners, the three protected area authorities in these countries have built a strong collaborative programme for conservation. Tourism, and more specifically, true "ecotourism", has been a partially developed tool in all three countries, generating levels of income which have covered not only conservation costs, but also benefited the countries in a larger sense. The war and resulting insecurity in the region have seriously affected this industry. The political will is currently available for the development of true "regional tourism", whereby the three countries pool their resources for developing this potential. The development of a regional ecotourism programme would contribute towards the higher political objective of peace and stability in this region.
Peter van den Dungen