Sample Abstracts of Success Stories to be
Presented at
Third Global Conference

John Fowkes and Patrick Jonsson
Metaplan Ltd. - South Africa

PARTNERSHIP AS A WAY TO PEACE:A case study from KwaZulu, South Africa

The colonial approach to game reserve management and the conflict it caused with neighbouring communities was compounded in South Africa by the apartheid system. The effect was the alienation of neighbouring communities from the economic and social benefits of Protected Areas (Pas). This alienation frequently expressed itself in violent clashes between PA personnel and local residents. In the early 1990s, prior to South Africa's new democratic constitution, the actions of political activists led to increasing levels of violent confrontation in an area of north-eastern KwaZulu in South Africa. The area is undeveloped with minimum economic activity. The local government sought to achieve economic growth in the region through development of tourism, particularly nature-based (eco) tourism. It did not, however, wish to perpetuate the historical exclusion of local black entrepreneurs from participation in the tourism projects. Most tourism opportunities lay within PAs. PA managers were, by and large, traditionalists in their approach to reserve management. All tourism development within PAs was undertaken and managed by PA staff. Government recognised that local entrepreneurs lacked the skills and experience to immediately develop successful tourism enterprises. The private tourism sector was encouraged to participate in the development. PA managers identified potential development sites. Local entrepreneurs were to be actively brought into the projects. Consultants led the project. Six years of negotiation and mediation led to the tourism developments within and adjacent to the PAs. These were owned by a three-way partnership between the conservation agency, local communities and private tourism operators. The communication systems established around the development of the tourism opened up a channel to discuss confrontation and violence. Codes of Conduct for private tourism operators within PAs were jointly developed and agreed. Over the six years of the project confrontation diminished, relationships between the conservation authorities, communities and private business improved dramatically

Mr Govinda P. Dhital,
Center for Community Development and Research (CCODER)
Kathmandu, Nepal


CCODER (Center for Community Development and Research) is a Nepalese non-profit non-governmental organisation. Since 1990, CCODER is promoting Community Development through an innovative approach comprising organization, education and social and economic development of disadvantaged communities in remote hill areas of Nepal. The "Community Tourism Programme" started in 1998. One of its main aims is to link Community Development and Sustainable Tourism through the generation of income, employment and local markets for agricultural products and handicrafts. Equally important aims are the provision of incentives for afforestation and nature conservation and the creation of a 'global family' through the encounter between rural Nepalis and foreign tourists during village homestays, resulting in mutual understanding and learning. Experiences with the first group of American tourists who visited the project area in 1998 shows that through 'Community Tourism' it is possible to build two-way bridges between the developing and the developed world for Human Peace. Community Tourism is a rural enterprise planned, owned and operated by the local people. It is a group activity, and benefits are shared among as many villages and individuals as possible. CCODER assists the communities in the develop-ment of tourism products, training, infrastructure improvements, networking and marketing and promotion. During a "Village Trek" in the famous Gorkha region, visitors can experience rural life and Nepalese hospitality off the beaten path with all the beautiful scenery and cultural diversity of Nepal. In the villages, tourists stay with host families and are accomodated in individual guestrooms. They can try a delicious, hygienically prepared Nepali "Daalbhaat" consisting of locally-produced rice, lentils and garden-fresh, organically grown vegetables prepared by their hosts. Special educational and interaction programs for locals and visitors can be arranged as well.

Diana Mcintyre Pike
Pike Astra Country Inn - Jamaica


The Countrystyle Community Tourism project is located in the centre of the island of Jamaica in the town of Mandeville. Its headquarters is a small family-owned and operated hotel - The ASTRA Country Inn that has been in operation for 29 years. The Countrystyle Community Tourism project has been in existence since 1978 pioneering Community Tourism in Jamaica and the Caribbean. Countrystyle Community Tourism is a project that has created a program that protects the natural, social, economic, cultural, historic and spiritual environment in Jamaica focussing especially on the central and south region of the island. It promotes tourism by involving communities and villages in the vacation package (known as the "Community Experience"). This teaches communities to appreciate their cultural and natural heritage and stimulates them to protect these resources and utilize then in a sustainable manner. This also allows visitors to experience the way of live in every respect, and allows communities to earn directly in their own environment, utilizing their talents, interest, hobbies, business places, churches:" is marketed through the Countrystyle Marketing Network, including the Community Tours Company, Internet Marketing Services and the Sustainable Tourism Institute, where local and international visitors, together with the community involved, can be educated professionally in the island's culture, history, music, and way of life in an interactive way. Some of the communities that have participated in the program are: Mandeville, Mile Gully, Cross Keys, Treasure Beach, Maggoty, and the Cockpit Country (including the Maroons in Accompong)

Richard Evanson
Turtle Island - Fiji


January 2000 marks 20 years of operation for Turtle Island - a premium, private island resort located in the Yasawa Islands, approximately 50 miles northwest of Fiji's main island Viti Levu. During that time, Turtle Island has hosted thousands of guests from throughout the world, who have been exposed to a unique approach to Sustainable Tourism. This experience has enabled them to have a greater appreciation of the Fijian people and their culture, and a more complete understanding of what can be achieved through responsible tourism practices. This has come about due to a deeply held sense of commitment to underlying values about the way in which the resort interacts with its various local communities, and to the role of the guests as stakeholders in that interaction. When owner Richard Evanson first came to Turtle Island in 1972, it was uninhabited and barren. It had suffered from decades of abuse by early European settlers. With the assistance of only a handful of local Fijians, incredible personal diligence and an unwavering vision, Richard and his staff started a massive effort to rebuild the natural and human fiber of the Island through a wide array of highly successful environmental and social programs. The case study discussion will focus on these programs including: · massive tree planting/reforestation program · development of furniture making industry · development of ecological zones · turtle protection program · policies regarding minimizing human impact · self sufficient vegetable and hydroponic gardens · establishment of a charitable Foundation to assist seven local villages · Medical Clinics - medicos donate their time each year to provide health services to Fijians in the area · Establishment of a permanent medical facility on the Island · Vuaki Mission School Fund · performing arts and cultural activities on the Island · use of traditional Fijian architecture, artifacts and furniture

Chinara Sadykova and Gulmira Ryskulova
Ecological NGO Consortium of the Kyrgyz Republic


The Kyrgyz Republic contains a great wealth of biodiversity resources - in terms of species, ecosystems and landscapes. Although a small nation by land mass, the Kyrgyz Republic displays a wide variation in elevations and geology, leading to broad range of habitats, which is reflected in a high diversity of species. The ecosystems represented range from high mountains, to lowland fertile plains and large freshwater systems. The character of biodiversity in the country reflects the high altitude of much of the land, being dominated by montane and alpine species. A range of factors over the last century have had an impact on biodiversity in the Kyrgyz Republic, resulting in declines in many groups, and leading to concern for a growing number of species, including key ones of economic importance. The first obligation once countries have ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is the production of a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (BSAP). The Kyrgyz Republic ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity on 6th August 1996. One of the first commitments of the Kyrgyz Republic government under the CBD was to prepare BSAP as an initial stage in biodiversity protection. This BSAP provides a thorough review and assessment of current biodiversity and the factors affecting it within the country. The BSAP has been designed following a participatory planning exercise involving Government agencies, NGOs, Local Administrations, Academic Institutions and the private sector. The Biodiversity Strategy comprises a number of inter-related strategic components (or approaches to conservation), which when applied together will fulfil the aim and objectives of this plan. One of the strategic components is: Sustainable use of biological and landscape diversity. This approach recognises the importance of development and implementing appropriate ecotourism activities. A NGO from the Kyrgyz Republic and Fauna and Flora International from UK formed the Ecological NGO Consortium. The Ecological NGO Consortium prepared a National Code of Conduct for Sustainable Tourism. The development of a Code of Conduct for Sustainable Tourism will not only affect the activities of NGO, but also benefit the people, economy and environment of the Kyrgyz Republic.

Ms. Nyamtseren Odinchimeg
Environmental Protection Agency of Mongolia
Mr. O.Bum-Yalagch
Mongolian National Eco-Tourism Society (MNETS)


This year is 45th year of Mongolian tourism development. We will present an analysis of tourism activities in Mongolia and planned future tourism development. In the 1990 we had only 1 tourism company which was owned by government. Today there are about 300 tour operators serving for about 20,000 tourist each year. There are also about 80,000 visitors to Mongolia. The tourism development policy of Mongolia is developed with the cooperation different NGO and Companies. The Government of Mongolia is a major supporter of ecological tourism and works closely with Mongolian National Eco-Tourism Society (MNETS). MNETS was founded as a social oriented non-governmental organization in April of 1995. Twenty-three members established this organization to develop in Mongolia environmental and social sustainable tourism. Now the society has as members of 25 tourism related organizations, and also 183 researchers in the field of tourism, as well as students and individuals, who are supporting the goals of the society. The president of the society leads and organizes daily operations. The society is partly financed by membership fees from member companies, organizations and also the sponsorship of members. Financing is also provided by business activities, which are related to the implementation of the goals of the society, and national and foreign financial resources from the implementation of projects.

Dan Gifford
National Parks and Conservation Association - USA


Many non-profit organizations have started offering tours to their members. Alumni associations, museum groups, and environmental organizations all have entered into this arena, and started travel programs. One new program has had tremendous success as a start-up program, and serves as an example for the importance of keeping travel relevant to an institution's mission and work. The National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA), the nation's only advocacy organization dedicated solely to the United States National Park System, launched its first slate of park-related tours in 1997. The program was named Parkscapes. Parkscapes was an immediate success because of its focus. Every Parkscapes tour has been devoted to showcasing the U.S. National Park System. Members quickly recognized the value of traveling to national parks with an organization dedicated to park preservation and protection. The content of NPCA's tours touched on new ground, and included such themes as park management, park comparisons, park resource protection and park-specific issues. Parkscapes may represent the future of association-sponsored travel. Tying travel into the mission of an organization achieves differentiation in a competitive market, encourages traveler loyalty, and supports the over-arching goals of the organization.

Shaul Krakover
University of the Negev - Israel


The Israeli-Jordanian border has opened for mutual visits of the citizens of both countries several years ago, following a peace treaty signed after 45 years of enmity. Contrary to the peace between Egypt and Israel defined as ëcold peaceí, the relationships between Israel and Jordan were defined as ëwarm peaceí. The objective of this study is to follow and analyze the development of tourism encounters across the Israeli-Jordanian boundary in comparison to the tourism contacts developed across the Israeli-Egyptian border. Quantitative indicators suggest that tourist trips are more intense in the former case, however, it is not entirely clear whether this is related to the different peace atmosphere or to the shorter distance involved. A more detailed study of the Israeli Arab citizens reveals a preference for visits in Jordan as opposed to Egypt. This is partially attributed to several socio-cultural variables such as old family ties, shared Arab dialect, and positive perception of the Jordanian people. It is associated for a lesser degree with the special atmosphere of peace that is said to exist between the two countries.

Adams Dambe Chilisa
Chobe Game Lodge, Chobe National Park, Botswana


Sadly, Africa is widely known for its setbacks to democracy, (characterised by wars and bad governance) and economic growth (underdevelopment and poverty), and lack of progress. Given this unfortunate history, there are very encouraging signs that Africa and, more so, Southern Africa are emerging, quite determined by and appropriately, to be important player in world affairs. It is against this backdrop that the new South African President has called for an "African Renaissance". To sustain this call, Africa and Southern Africa needs success models. It is against this desire that every opportunity that could be found, should be applied properly and that common synergies should be harnessed to focus attention on those countries and regions that are clear success stories, and present a tangible promise. The model countries must be held up, encouraged and motivated to achieve more success. The Republic of Botswana is regarded as one of the success stories of Africa and Southern Africa. It has both a robust economy and most importantly a stable democracy, since its independence, on September 30th, 1966.

Gary Russell
Baltic Sea Tourism Commission - Denmark


... The Baltic Sea cruise travel market proves that co-operation and competition can work in collaboration and increase tourism for a number of countries in economic transition .

The Baltic Sea Region generally relates to the eleven countries surrounding the Baltic Sea and is an area that shares a common goal of developing sustainable tourism. Tourism cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region started in the early 1980's and focused on the importance of protecting the environment in order to develop a high quality tourism destination. As a result of this, the Baltic Sea Tourism Commission (BTC) was founded in 1983 on an initiative of the German Lübeck Chamber of Commerce. The objective of the BTC is to promote the natural and sustainable development of tourism in, and to, the Baltic Sea Region. Although there was agreement on the importance of protecting the environment, attempts to introduce joint principles were not made until the mid 90s which coincided with the fall of the iron curtain and the liberation of the Baltic states. In 1997 BALDER, a tourism development and co-operation program for the Baltic Sea Region, was introduced and acknowledged by country tourist boards, cities, and regions around the Baltic Sea. The BTC is a non-profit association made up of a Board of Management of 20 persons (from 16 different countries), a small and effective secretariat, and an Executive Director. BTC members represent varied sectors interested in inbound tourism including cities, regions, air carriers, ferry companies, tour operators, hotel chains, and cultural institutions.

Dr. David Weaver
Griffith University - Australia

THE CRC FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM: An Experiment in Partnership

The Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) for Sustainable Tourism was established by the Australian government in 1997 as a collaborative research partnership between government, industry and the university sector. The mandate of the CRC for Sustainable Tourism is to deliver strategic knowledge to the Australian tourism industry in a timely fashion, in order to ensure the sustainability of the sector. This paper outlines and critically assesses various elements of this initiative, which includes the following: the use of sustainability as a workable organisational paradigm, an emphasis on applied as opposed to basic research, and the delivery of knowledge on the basis of industry rather than academic timelines. The extent to which the CRC for Sustainable Tourism can be used, with adaptation and modification, as a framework for destinations within and outside of Australia is also discussed.

Bob Billington
Blackstone Valley Tourism Council Inc. - USA


In 1635, the Reverend William Blackstone settled in a river valley 50 miles south of Boston. The river took the name of Rhode Island's first European settler. The powerful Blackstone River stretches 45 miles from Worcester, Massachusetts to Providence, Rhode Island. In 1790, an immigrant from England started a revolution that moved America from an agrarian to an industrial economy. Samuel Slater had the ingenuity to unleash the potential of the Blackstone River. He dammed the river and built a textile-spinning mill, the first in America. A thousand textile mills sprang up along the River. Millions of immigrants came to the Valley. After 150 years of growth it fell upon hard economic times. In the 1940's a slow economic decline began leaving behind abandoned mill buildings, a polluted river and high unemployment. In the 1970's thoughts of sustainable economic change began. Change was based on a pride-of-place, sound employment and an appropriate quality of life. Commitment, confidence, leadership and creativity were the tools of change. By the 1980's, "Valley-wide systemic regeneration" emerged. It wanted to reclaim a strong industrial base, maintain community values and draw domestic and international visitors. It offered the world its culture, heritage and environment as a working exhibit. It was authentic; it was the "real" story. In 1986 the US Congress designated the Valley a National Heritage Corridor and in 1998 the Blackstone was designated an American Heritage River by President Clinton. How is the Valley accomplishing regeneration with residents, political leaders, federal agencies, businesses and national and international visitors? Robert Billington and Natalie Carter will present a workshop to explain the collaborative steps the communities have taken to achieve its goals.

Janet Cochrane
Researcher - United Kingdom

LINKING LOCAL TO GLOBAL: A Tourism Study of Bromo Tengger Semeru - East Java

Tourism to the national park of Bromo Tengger Semeru, in East Java, Indonesia, focuses on the sacred volcano of Mount Bromo. Tourists trek or ride horses across an arid sand sea and climb to the crater rim to watch the dawn, while smaller numbers drive to an alternative viewpoint, and a few climbers venture to the summit of Mount Semeru, Java's highest mountain. Bromo is a popular destination for foreign tourists, the majority of whom originate from other countries in Asia, while domestic tourists make up 70 per cent of the 130,000 annual visitors. Tourism to Bromo is of great economic benefit to the local Tenggerese people, to the wider region of East Java and to the country as a whole. A much higher level of local involvement in tourism (around 75 per cent of households) was revealed by recent research than is recognised by regional tourism officials, and the industry has compensated to some extent for a recent downturn in income from agriculture. Rather than being marginalised by tourism, the Tenggerese have retained control over important elements of the product. Social welfare indicators are higher in the villages which host tourists than in other villages around the national park which are unaffected by tourism, and levels of exploitation of natural resources within the park and its buffer zone appear to be lower amongst the people who are involved in tourism than amongst those who are not. But tourism is highly susceptible to civil politics, and the political and economic turmoil in Indonesia in the late 1990s has caused a decline in tourism - with a consequent drop in income from this sector. It remains to be seen whether this has resulted in a return to over-exploitation of natural resources around Bromo as it has in other areas of the country.

Dr. Tom Hinch (Presenter), Univ. of Alberta - Canada
Dr. Alison McIntosh, Univ. of Otago - New Zealand
Dr. Takiora Ingram, Ministry of Maori Development Government of New Zealand


Mäori tourism operators face a number of challenges in the pursuit of sustainability. Leading these challenges is the desire to create respect and appreciation among visitors for traditional and contemporary Mäori ways of life, thereby protecting fundamental Mäori cultural values. This paper is based on the analysis of staff and management interviews conducted at three successful Mäori based attractions in New Zealand: Tamaki Tours (Rotorua), Te Papa Tongarewa (Wellington), and Whale Watch (Kaikoura). Sixteen common strategies emerged from the analysis that appeared to be instrumental to the success of all three attractions. These strategies have been grouped into the following general categories: Staffing policies. All three attractions are successful at fostering a strong sense of pride among their staff, empowering staff to make their own decisions as consistent with Mäori values, providing strong leadership, and offering genuine hospitality by fostering a whänau (family) working environment. Visitor experience. All three attractions provide experiences that are authentic, emotional and spiritual, present traditional and contemporary cultural perspectives, are accessible to people of all cultures, and which have been developed in consultation with tribal elders to respect traditional protocol. Resource base. All three attractions give priority to their role as caretakers of cultural resources so that integrity can be maintained through their conduct of appropriate protocol and respect for Mäori beliefs. Business approach. All three attractions have achieved standards of excellence, global reputation and differentiation in what they offer to visitors. Each of the attractions continue to strive towards longer term visions so that they main remain at the forefront of indigenous tourism at an international level. While there is no single recipe for success, Tamaki Tours, Te Papa and Whale Watch all appear to have achieved a favourable mix between economic and cultural outcomes.

Annamaria Nicholson
University of Durban - South Africa


The paper presents two case studies of tourism development in which the author had a professional involvement as a consultant. One in a township on the outskirts of Durban and the second in a rural area in KwaZulu-Natal. The case studies are discussed in comparative perspective in an attempt to understand the development framework in which tourism can play a part for the uplifting of the previously disadvantaged communities. The author was commissioned in 1997 by the Durban Metro Council to carry out an investigation into the tourism potential of Inanda that could kick start the socio-economic upgrading of the area. The research had the objective of addressing tourism as a possible market opportunity which, to some extent, would put in motion the local economy and would unlock other constraining factors at the socio-cultural and institutional level. The township of Inanda at approximately 27km from the city of Durban is rich in historical and cultural heritage and through the development of tourism is reclaiming its history and cultural identity. It hosts a number of national monuments in memory of prominent religious and political leaders such as: Ghandi who established the Ghandi settlement for the Indian community, the Ohlange Institute built in 1900 for the education of black youth by the first president of the ANC, Dr. J.L. Dube, and the headquaters of the Shembe Church. In 1998 a non-governmental organisation, the Business Support Centre (BSC) mandated the Centre for Partnership in Enterprise Research and Technology Transfer (CEPERTT) to carry out an investigation into the potential of craft skills in Loteni. The analysis was to achieve an understanding of the socio-economic dynamics that could either constrain or encourage a broader demand for community-based tourism development. The research carried out by the author was to suggest basic criteria for a model of relating community-based small/medium enterprises (SMEs) to tourism development.

Justine Digance
Gold Coast University - Australia


Pilgrimage is traditionally perceived as promoting peace and international understanding between the pilgrims who are undertaking a journey as part of their individual spiritual quest. The end goal is usually a well known destination where devotional worship occurs, and where, ultimately, the pilgrim may experience an encounter with the Divine and undergo a mystical experience. Victor Turner particularly focused on the liminal stage of the pilgrimage journey (a rite de passage) and communitas which is supposed to occur in the pilgrimage process. Many authors found that communitas did not exist in practice in traditional religious pilgrimage, but the writer found two examples of this in recent research on modern, secular pilgrimage. One reason that communitas occurred was that the events were conducted at locations that were not contested sites. Both at traditional religious pilgrimage and modern, secular pilgrimage sites around the world there are, as has already been noted by some authors commenting on Western Christian pilgrimage, many instances of visitor conflict between mass tourists, locals and secular pilgrims. The writer also discusses sites where this is occurring, both in Europe and Australia. The challenge for those charged with the management of these sites and/or events is to ensure that all visitors - pilgrim and tourist alike - have the opportunity to experience the site, engage with others in a non-confrontational and peaceful way, and to have the opportunity of fulfilling their visit needs.

Danny Cusick
Loch Lomond Project - Scotland


The Loch Lomond Project is a major tourism development to be located at the village of Balloch, on the southern shores of Loch Lomond. Over the next few years, over £60M will be spent transforming the 100 acre site into a world class tourist attraction which is hoped will attract over 1 million visits annually. The first phase of the project is due to open in the spring of 2001. The project is a partnership between the public and private sectors Loch Lomond is renowned world wide for its natural beauty and, together with the surrounding Trossachs area, will shortly become Scotland's first National Park. However, the surrounding area of West Dunbartonshire where the project is to be situated has the highest unemployment rate in Scotland - almost twice the national rate. Within this backdrop, Dunbartonshire Enterprise as an economic development agency recognises that the sustainable success of the project must rely on the successful integration of the project into the community. Our Approach: The heart of this case study will focus on the approach that we intend to develop with respect to sustainability. Our ultimate objective is to develop a world class tourist attraction which will boost the overall economic, social and environmental quality of Balloch and the Loch Lomond area for its residents and visitors. We are developing a sustainable framework around the project in order to balance the complex economic, social and environmental issues related to the project. This will be a transparent and participative process involving our key internal and external partners. Our aim is to make the Loch Lomond Project an exemplar project in sustainable development terms in order to make a real difference to the community and the environment where the project is happening.

Ana Lúcia Faria,
Federal University of Santa Catarina - Brazil

TOURISM ACTIVITY IN SUSTAINABLE WAYS:: A Study Case in Rancho Queimado City - Santa Catarina - Brazil

The necessity to promote the municipal development in a sustainable way has made possible the partnership between Rancho Queimado City Hall (South Region of Santa Catarina State - Brazil) and Federal University of Santa Catarina. Rancho Queimado Municipality is placed in the interior of Santa Catarina State, on the coast of Serra Geral with a diversified vegetation represented by Atlantic and Brazilian Pine forest. It has 3.000 inhabitants and the economy is based on small rural properties developed by agriculture and farm animals. It has a high diversity value of landscape that becomes more diversified by the existence of singularities such as houses and other improvement typically colonial, as also legacy left by the first inhabitants of this region, like Indians who were expulsed during the colonisation process, predominantly German, that began last century. The present case study characterizes itself as an exploratory study and its main objective is to verify the possibility of tourism activity development in Rancho Queimado Municipality, over the sustainable development. It is identified a great potential for the tourism activity, that must be developed through the application of Agenda 21, minimizing in this way the impacts caused by the traditional tourism. The research suggests a tourism activity oriented in a segmented way, directed for a particular type of tourist. In the case of the ecotourism it is represented by its natural and cultural attractiveness, for the proposed alternative it is motivated by esoteric, health or therapeutic, and scientific aspects. As a conclusion, it was presented some proposals that show the possibility of solutions being created for the development of touristic activities compromised with the principles of sustaintability are presented in diagrams.

Jim Donovan
Director, The Nepal Trust, Nepal


Midwestern Nepal is a region that has, on the whole, been ignored by large development organisations, and is in many ways representative of those cultures which have been left behind in the development sector for political or geographic reasons. It has little in the way of infrastructure, which is centred predominantly in the Southern towns of Nepalgunj and Sirket. As a result, districts like Humla in the Himalayan North have some of the worst health records in the world. Tourism has only just begun to develop here, and The Nepal Trust, an NGO working with villages in Humla, has been learning how to balance income generation and cross-cultural learning on the one hand with development and heritage preservation on the other. The Nepal Trust's 'Treks to Build Health and Community' are a unique development which enable health posts to be constructed through a partnership of local villagers and paying trekkers. The clinics are built jointly by the trekkers, local craftsmen and professional builders and healthcare is provided by trained local women supported by volunteer doctors and nurses. Along with the evident benefits of an improved health service, the treks are an ideal opportunity for two cultures to meet in a mutually supportive context. A sensitive and controlled tourism is the vehicle which will create the social and economic advances necessary to raise the standard of living in Humla. Future developments will explore more conventional 'eco-tourism' - such as the reconstruction of Raling Gompa, a Hindu and Buddhist monastery on the Tibetan border - as well as university programmes (particularly with regard to Himalayan ecosystems and ethnography) , creating a permanent source of income whilst restricting the environmental and sociological impacts that have made tourism such a mixed blessing in the past.

Duncan Bryden
Tourism and the Environment - Scotland


The Scottish Tourism and Environment Forum is a multi organisational partnership established in 1994. The overall mission of the Forum is to bring long term business and environmental benefits to the Scottish tourism industry through encouraging sustainable use of our world class natural and built heritage. Research shows that over 80% of visitors are attracted by Scotland's environmental qualities. This paper will present the work of the Forum to date and highlight particular initiatives such as the Tourism Management Programmes for sustainable development in Scottish tourism destinations and the award winning Green Tourism Business Scheme. The scheme, which rewards improved environmental performance in energy, water and waste management in individual businesses including hotels, holiday parks and attractions now covers 10% of the bed stock in Scotland. The Interpretive Planning Handbook produced by the Forum has been widely distributed across Scotland and has proved a valuable tool in helping communities and agencies better explain what is special about their area to visitors. A new three year operational plan has just been released and this plots the way forward for sustainable tourism in Scotland and embraces new challenges including promoting best practice and a quality driven approach. The Forum is made up of a number of partners and demonstrates the importance of partnership in achieving objectives both at local and national level. Only by working together can the Forum move towards that aim of a local heart with a global beat.

Elissa Williams
The Uganda Community Tourism Association - Uganda


The Uganda Community Tourism Association was established in July 1998 in Jinja, Uganda by sixty community members representing sixteen tourism and twenty-one craft community initiatives. As the tourism industry started to grow again in Uganda during the early 1990's, communities near "protected areas" discovered an opportunity - community based tourism. Uganda, as a tourism destination, had become more suited to the smaller scale, more environmentally friendly tourism, called eco-tourism. This suited the communities. In 1995, the first Community Tourism Services Workshop was held. This brought together twenty-eight community entrepreneurs from all over Uganda representing community groups who were presently operating campsites, dining facilities and indigenous guiding. Participants found a common thread in their development and after leaving the workshop continued to keep in touch. In the three years since the first workshop, the communities had gained the support of the North Carolina Zoological Park and the Uganda Tourist Board. The appointment of a resident programme co-ordinator by NCZP in Uganda provided ongoing support and advice. At the workshop in July 1998 the participants recognized that joining together would assist them in their development. UCOTA - The Uganda Community Tourism Association was born. The UCOTA membership represents two major areas: Eco-tourism and Craft. This includes: camp sites, rest camps, indigenous tour guides; dining facilities; information services; and crafts. Members are situated throughout Uganda and many enterprises adjoin National Parks. UCOTA established its overall objective in its Mission Statement To encourage quality community based tourism with the aim of benefiting communities through sustainable development. The Uganda Community Tourism Association will act as an "umbrella" organisation representing its members. It will become a "strategy" through which the members can develop and market their enterprise, as well as provide a focus for tourists who wish to obtain information about community tourism facilities or to purchase craftwork.

Maria T. Bellot Tourism
Consultant - Dominica


Dominica lies in the Windward Islands of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. It is volcanic in origin, extremely mountainous and rugged. A complete absence of the white sand beaches for which the Caribbean is known has kept Dominica out of the typical pattern of tourism development seen in almost every other Caribbean island. At the beginning of the 1980's Dominica was still considered disadvantaged in terms of its tourism potential. Nevertheless, Dominica began on a small scale to offer a nature/adventure tourist product including rainforest tours, birdwatching, and the very unique experience of hiking to the largest boiling lake of its kind in the world which is situated in the appropriately named Valley of Desolation. The advent and rapid success of ecotourism on a global basis helped Dominica to see itself in a new light and to recognize its mountainous beauty and pristine rainforests as important tourist attractions. Around 1987, diving and whale watching operations began. Today, Dominica is rated among the world's ten best locations for diving. The whalewatching business has grown and is recognized to have tremendous potential. These new uses of the marine resource necessitate sharing between communities, traditional users and tourism enterprises. Conservation of the island's resources has been an important principle guiding the work of the Division of Forestry for several years. In August 1998, Dominica received the prestigious award of having its 17000 acre Morne Trois Pitons National Park designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Because there are only a few options for economic development on such a small island there is increasing pressure for rapid expansion and growth on the tourism sector and new issues of balance and conservation are arising.

Michael Freed,
Director of Nature Protection International, USA
Andrey Suknov,
Director of Regional Tourism Institute, Ulan Ude, Russia


In 1988, a group of activists sponsored a peace walk across America. They met a group of Russian visitors who said you cannot have a true walk for peace in the cold war unless you have Russian participants. Please accept our invitation to have a Peace Walk Across Russia in 1989. They accepted and the 1989 Peace Walk changed many lives. This is the story of how that walk across Russia, began a long process of transformation in the lives of Russians and Americans. We, the authors of this success story, have been involved in conservation and student exchange programs and land use planning in Russia ever since. We want you to know how we have changed, what we have accomplished and how this involvement led to the designation of Lake Baikal as a World Heritage Site under United Nations Conventions. The Green Walk from Ulan Ude to Lake Baikal will include about 100 students, citizens and travelers to increase awareness of the importance of lake Baikal. Why is this so important that we would dedicate a good portion of our lives, almost 10 years now, to the preservation and protection of a lake. Because Lake Baikal has 20% of the world's standing fresh water in one place on the earth and it is drinkable quality water, one of the purest lakes on earth. We want to preserve this lake so people from other nations can see this great "Pearl of Siberia", the "sacred inland sea". Our Green Walk will highlight conservation and awareness of the values of Lake Baikal. We think our efforts have combined with the efforts of many others to create a World Heritage Site which is a "success story" for the rest of the world.

Joan C. Henderson
Nanyang Technological University - Singapore


The paper is concerned with the history of war and atrocity in the period after the Second World War in Indochina and how this heritage is being used as a tourism resource to create visitor attractions which have the potential to contribute to increased international understanding and world peace. Several problems do, nevertheless, arise and these are discussed and the challenges facing those responsible for heritage interpretation and presentation are acknowledged. There is a need for honesty, integrity and authenticity at sites with a balance struck between education and entertainment. The importance of the participation in the decision making process of those whose heritage is depicted is stressed, while the difficulties of securing it recognised. It is concluded that such difficult material can be an appropriate subject for tourist attractions if handled with sensitivity and that a visit can leave both tourist and resident better informed about the past and more committed to a rejection of the violence commemorated. However, further research is necessary to better appreciate the attitudes and responses of hosts and guests to heritage sites and the effective management of such projects. upported many studies in the discipline of social psychology. In addition, sectorial and cultural specificity is suggested to address the unique characteristic of Hong Kong Chinese restaurant environment.

Prof.. Richard Butler, University of Surrey, Guildford, and
Prof. Tom Baum, Scottish Hotel School, Strathclyde Univ. - U.K.


The last decade has seen major changes in the geopolitical arrangements at a global level, ans subsequently in the patterns of tourism. While peace on a global scale has been the norm since the end of the Second World War in 1945, a large number of conflicts of widely varying scale in many parts of the world since that date meant that peace was often regarded as illusionary and perhaps temporary at best. Only since the decline of Communism, the radical changes in the former Soviet Union and its allies, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and as a corollary, the end of the Cold War, have most western and developed countries felt confident enough of the relatively permanent advent of peace that they have been willing to make significant reductions in their armed forces and related infrastructures. One consequence of this process has been the widespread closure of military facilities in the North Atlantic , Pacific and elsewhere as former confrontationists seek to demonstrate greater confidence in each other while, at the same time, reducing the cost of their military commitments. This working paper looks at the outcomes of military base decommissioning, its consequences in terms of the economic re-structuring of communities affected by such closures, especially those in peripheral locations, and the role which tourism development can play within the economic revitalisation process. Case examples are drawn from the North Atlantic and Pacific in order to illustrate the extent to which tourism can contribute to the revitalisation of communities facing the impact of military withdrawal.

Sanjay K. Nepal,
University of Bern - Switzerland.


More than three decades of trekking and mountaineering tourism in the erstwhile remote Khumbu valley where the world's highest national park is located, have undermined the ecological and cultural values of the Sagarmatha National Park (SNP). Declared an international heritage site, the Park is visited anually by more than 17,000 international tourists, and almost the same number of support staff. While tourism has greatly improved the livelihood conditions of many local Sherpas, the main inhabitants of Khumbu, it has also put tremendous pressure on local resources such as firewood, and impacted the social-cultural fabric of the Sherpa community. One of the main negative impacts of tourism is the accumulation of garbage resulting from trekking and mountaineering expeditions, which has been widely publicized at the national and international levels. The Everest region has become known to the world as the highest dumpground and the trails leading to the Everest basecamp "the garbage trail." Least publicized are the efforts made by the Sherpa community, government authority, and international agencies towards improving the region's environmental conditions. Remarkable achievements have been made in the last couple of years with respect to alternative energy sources and solid waste management. This paper highlights the successes in garbage clean up in the Park, and the challenges that lie ahead in mitigating the harmful effects of tourism. The growing awareness of environmental issues among the Sherpa community, and the establishment of local institutions such as the Sagarmatha Pollution Control Committee (SPCC) to tackle environmental problems, have shown positive results. New regulations concerning waste disposal and regular cleanup have made the Everest region relatively cleaner than in the past. There are numerous challenges particularly with respect to making local efforts sustainable, and building a strong institutional base for solving other environmental problems in the Everest region.

Tracy A. Farrell
Protected Area Planning and Management Consultant - USA


The sustainability of tourism depends in part on preventing and mitigating natural resource impacts occurring in protected areas. Natural resource impacts may result from facility and infrastructure development and also from visitor activities, the latter of which is often overlooked. However, visitor activities potentially result in a variety of undesirable impacts including trail erosion, attraction feature degradation, water pollution, litter, and wildlife disturbance, among others. Fortunately, a variety of management strategies are available to help avoid or minimize visitor impacts; the selection of which, is based on criteria developed as part of a larger visitor impact management program. Visitor impact management programs include one or more of the following components: recreation or visitor activity management plans, informal or formal decision making frameworks (e.g., carrying capacity and the limits of Acceptable Change), visitor impact monitoring programs, and implementation of specific visitor impact management strategies. Although the majority of visitor impact management success stories have occurred in developed countries, developing countries have also begun to tackle visitor impact problems. This presentation will discuss successful visitor impact management initiatives currently occurring in three Latin American protected areas: Cuatro Cienegas in Mexico, Torres del Paine National Park in Chile and Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Costa Rica. Cuatro Cienegas has selected impact indicators, refined monitoring procedures, and trained staff to begin conducting visitor impact monitoring. Torres del Paine National Park has defined recreation zones and objectives as part of its general management plan, and has conducted an initial phase of trail and campsite impact monitoring. Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve has implemented a variety of successful visitor impact management strategies including trail maintenance, limiting the number of individuals on trails and requiring the use of guides.

Maria Vega
Organization Mundo Maya - Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico

MUNDO MAYA where time, nature and man are one

Five independent nations unified in purpose to maximize opportunity and to create solutions to modern problems within the framework of sustainable tourism development harnessing lessons and resources from their common heritage in the ancient Maya Civilization. A concept undergoing continuous interpretation and diverse practical application since its inception in 1989, the Mundo Maya activities now include among others: Sustainable Tourism Development, Conservation and Environment, Education and Training, Community Development, Micro Enterprise Development and Regional Cooperation. Very much a people oriented organization, the accomplishments are the result of the synergies on a community, national and regional level with management decision-making arising from close collaboration amongst the tourism ministers of the region and the private sector tourism entities. The organizational structure is on two levels, national entities fashioned by each country to satisfy its needs and the regional body that encompasses the five national entities. Within the governing goals and objectives agreed upon by all the member countries, each country is at liberty to pursue its own priority needs and to become financially viable. In addition, to this, there is great flexibility of cross-border cooperation, technology transfer and human development as members collaborate with each other on shared priority needs either bilaterally or multilaterally. On a regional level resources are pooled for international marketing and promotion, fundraising, and regional training programs in hospitality, eco-tourism and product development. The establishment of the new technical unit, OMM's newest resource, will give greater impetus furthering the development of the countries' programs individually and collectively. On the eve of the new millennium, Organization Mundo Maya is poised to launch its far-reaching education tool, the Primary School Mundo Maya Reader which will be utilized in schools around the region. Again a collaborative effort, each of the five countries contributed a chapter to this five chapter Reader which is planned to be a powerful classroom resource in the teaching of many subjects language, science, mathematics, culture, and society among others.

Angela Kalisch,
Tourism Concern - UK


Tourism as an industry and an invisible trade export item is increasing rapidly in developing countries. Due to historical inequality in trading relationships on the basis of 'core - periphery' dependency, globalisation and liberalised free trade, mainstream mass tourism reinforces social and economic inequality in Southern destinations. Faced with debt, structural adjustment programmes and falling prices of export commodities, Southern governments are increasingly forced to adopt tourism as a major export sector within the context of economic growth policies. However, where such policies are imposed on grass roots communities, particularly, indigenous, first nation and tribal groups without access to information and consultation processes, the economic and socio-cultural effects can be devastating, sowing conflict and division. The 'Fair Trade ' Movement has sought to redress unequal trading by promoting fair trade in commodities with small producers in the South, enabling them to take control over the production and marketing process and challenging the power of transnational corporations. Products such as coffee, tea, chocolate, nuts and handicrafts have developed from a niche market in the early 1990s to a place on the supermarket shelf. In addition, market research indicates that consumers are beginning to demand more responsibility and ethical standards in business. This paper examines the feasibility of Fair Trade in tourism, incorporating criteria based on equality in the trade partnership which would be workable and practical for both partners in the South and North. It explores the ways in which Southern communities would like to see tourism develop and how experiences from existing community-based tourism initiatives and fair trade operators can be on the one hand formulated into policies and guidelines that could be adopted by mainstream operators and on the other hand assist the consumer to choose a tourism experience which directly contributes to poverty elimination in the developing world.

Dr. Raphael Raymond Bar-On Economic Statistician & Tourism Consultant, Advisor to ULAI Union of Local Authorities in Israel


The Egypt-Israel Peace Accord (March 1979) led to two million visits of Israelis to Egypt and 172,000 visits of Egyptian residents to Israel. The Peace Agreements between Israel and the Palestinians (September 1993) and Jordan (October 1994) led to 500,000 visits of Israelis to Jordan and 260,000 visits of residents of Jordan to Israel. Millions of visits between Israel and the Palestinian Authority have continued, and there were 480,000 visits of residents of Lebanon to Israel from 1986: all these include multiple visits. Joint tourism from Western countries was previously limited, and has expanded considerably since the Peace Agreements, including cultural and vacation visits to Egypt (especially Taba and Sinai) and Petra (Jordan) together with Israel. Promotion is enhanced by the four Ministers of Tourism holding joint Press Conferences at the major International Tourism Fairs. MEMTTA - the Middle East & Mediterranean Travel and Tourism Association was set up in 1995 (including Cyprus, Malta, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey too), but political conditions have prevented its activities until now. Cooperation should increase for the Millenium tourism: the Pope plans to visit Bethlehem, Jerusalem and Nazareth. Jordan's Aqaba airport services tourist flights to Eilat too, and the Palestinian Authority's airport at Dahamiya is expected to serve Millenium and other tourists. The Casino near Jericho is popular with Israelis and other tourists. ULAI the Union of Local Authorities in Israel, APLA the Association of Palestinian Local Authorities and CEMR the Council of European Municipalities and Regions agreed on Enhancing Peace and Cooperation (Barcelona, March 22, 1999) and Israel's new Government (July 1999) is encouraging joint tourism projects. Plans include development of joint Cultural - Historic Tourism along Via Maris (the Roman name for the Road along the Sea), the Perfume and Incense Routes and In the Footsteps of Abraham, also Youth and School Exchange.

Clare Cummings
Community member, The Findhorn Foundation - Scotland


Founded in 1962 in a caravan park in the northeast of Scotland, the Findhorn Foundation is internationally known for its experiment with new models for holistic and sustainable living. For over thirty five years the Foundation has offered non-sectarian, spiritual education to thousands of guests, and has dedicated its work to exploring both community and sustainability. In the early days Findhorn became well known for its beautiful gardens grown on the sand dunes of Findhorn Estuary. From this experience an Educational Programme was developed around the principle 'work is love in action' . From this, The Eco-village Project, which promotes a holistic approach to living, has been a natural progression. The project received a UN award for best practices in sustainable living in 1998. Over 4 000 people a year come to take part in our workshops, conferences and educational programmes. Recent conference themes include Creating Sustainable Communities (1998) A Call to Peace (1999) Forgiveness (November 1999) and Soul Education (November 2000). Many holiday makers and local people attend our events or visit our shop and cafe. The presentation will briefly put what the Findhorn Foundation is doing in context by looking at basic human needs (food, water, shelter, warmth and care) and how the human race uses the environment to supply those needs. Then continue looking at ways in which we are meeting those needs in a more environmentally conscious way, through our Eco-village project. We will look at in detail through slides and overheads, at how the Findhorn Foundation lives the Ecological, Social and Spiritual aspects of life, highlighting our village project which includes ecohouses, renewable energy and the Living Machine (our sewage treatment plant); our education programme which includes our Eco-Village training; our outreach work which includes staff training consultancy work with organisations such as The Earth Centre; and our daily practices.

Ellen Rilla
University of California Cooperative Extension - USA

CASE STUDY: AGRITOURISM IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA: A Cooperative Approach to Adapting Farm Tourism to Local Conditions

Pressure of urbanization has led to North Bay farmers quest for alternative approaches to maintaining profitable agricultural enterprises: agriculture and nature based tourism activities are one option Agritourism or farm based tourism is a very new concept in California. Over 4.5 million visitors travel to the Pt. Reyes National Seashore which adjoins an agriculture area that is situated within one hour of a 6.6 million populace in the San Francisco Bay Area. This case study chronicles Rilla's travels to England and several East Coast states to learn about farm tourism practices by visiting and interviewing 100 farmers aand host agencies . This cross fertilization is brought home to Northern California where two years later a small but growing local agritourism group evolves with a statewide infrastructure evolving beside it. Rilla details her sabbatical experience, the exchange between English, East Coast and California farmers, and compares and contrasts this entrepeneurial technique as a critical component to other land protection techniques such as purchase of development rights and agricultural zoning. An important aspect of this project is the cooperative effort of local government support agencies working together in a team effort to assist landowners. Project products thus far include a local workshop, initiation of a statewide work group , a local entrepreneurs group, and possible rezoning of local ordinances to better support the goals of keeping farmers on the land. This project began with pre-project interviews with 20 local landowners who expressed interest in this type of business.

Ishmael Angelo Samad
Project Director - Trinidad and Tobago


Leatherback turtles nest on the east coast of Trinidad on beaches of Grande Riviere ,Matura and Fishing Pond during the months of April,May and June. During the 70's,appalled at the slaughter of female leatherbacks by proachers who hunt the turtles for its meat, I, and members of the field naturalist club, took it upon our selves to confront the hunters head on in order to stop this senseless slaughter.This exercise involved patrolling five miles of lonely coastline on foot and sometimes alone .At times,we undertook to do it on weekends when most of the hunting occurred.We would bike all the way to the east coast. I would hide my trailbike amongst the coconut trees and begin patrolling equipped with a fish gun for protection. There were several confrontations with poachers and at times life and death encounters. I persisted in my commitments,nevertheless, season after season. The print media was supportive of my efforts and made the wider society aware of the cruel slaughter of those utterly helpless creatures. The government was forced to setup armed patrols and game wardens began patrolling the beaches. Eventually, in the mid 80's, Matura,Fishing Pond and Grand Riviere were declared nesting sanctuaries for the leatherbacks,hawkbills and greenbacks.Today on the east coast of Trinidad turtles can come ashore and nest and not be hacked to death by poachers. Once upon a time you could count fifty (50) carcasses during the nesting season. These were all females because only females come ashore to lay eggs on the sand beaches.Today not a single carcass can be found. Several community based conservation groups have been founded to patrol the beaches and guide visitors. The Forestry department has also instituted official controls. And even I, Ishmael AngeloSamad cannot visit the nesting beaches without a permit. The implications for the future of the eco-tourist industry are evidently enormous .

Margot Sallows Manager,
Environmental Services Green Globe Ltd. - UK


is recognised as one of the few areas of economic activity that has enjoyed and will continue to enjoy, steady growth over a long period of time. The labour intensive nature of Travel & Tourism services and products makes it the world's largest generator of jobs. Whilst tourism can bring much needed foreign exchange and employment opportunities at the national and regional levels, poorly planned tourism has often seen the exclusion of local communities from the benefits of increased revenue and better jobs. This is contrary to the principles of Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) and Sustainable Tourism. Tourist destinations must take a pro-active approach to conserving the world's natural and cultural resources, and to develop tools and practices that will protect and conserve these resources - on which the industry lies - in perpetuity. The Republic of the Philippines, in conjunction with UNESCO and UNDP has embarked on a series of programmes focusing on the development community-based tourism development as an alternative livelihood opportunity in areas where traditional agricultural and fisheries practices are now under review. The City of Puerto Princesa, on the Palawan, the 'last frontier' of the country, has taken a strong stance on the environment. It believes tourism will help protect and conserve the unique and diverse natural and cultural environment in perpetuity, as well as raise the standard of living in current and future generations. The paper discusses the methodology adopted and the successes to date.

Shailendra Agarwal
Director - Dept. of Tourism, Art and Culture - Rajasthan - India


For years, the forts, castles and havelies of Rajput nobility reflected their gallantry, chivalry and royal lifestyles in the architecture of their feudal homes. However, these palaces and mansions lay abandoned for decades after independence, as the noble families lost their special privileges and traditional tax revenue. Tourism in Rajasthan is largely monument based and the incoming tourist, impressed with forts and palaces wished to personally experience the royal life style of the past .This need was sensed by Rajasthan Tourism and it started a movement to infuse a new lease of life in these legendary forts and palaces. The State Government provided facilities and concessions to encourage the owners to restore their ancestral -abandoned - homes and run them as heritage hotels. Today, Rajasthan has 100 heritage hotels, with 2700 additional room capacity of international standard generating an income of 60 million US dollars, substantially in foreign exchange, besides a tax revenue of Rs. 10 million to the Government, by accommodating half a million tourists every year. The coming up of these heritage hotels has generated vast employment opportunities in the local area. While over 4000 are employed directly with these hotels, more than ten times this number is benefited through indirect employment through transport and contract services, craftsmen, guides and artists. Benefits are not just economic. The concept has led to restoration, and conservation of our heritage. Over 800 million Indian rupees have been invested in the past 10 years to revive the legendary historical buildings. The dying art forms like folk music, dance, sculpture, paintings, crafts and cuisine have been revived, enhancing the self esteem of the artisans and craftsmen besides income. The success story of heritage hotels in Rajasthan has not only brought socio-economic benefits to its owners, the government, and local population but has also led to conservation of historical legacy - be it forts, palaces, art forms and cuisine. Several Indian States are now striving hard to emulate and replicate the concept. Rajasthan Tourism is proud to be a pioneer in this area.

Ian Kelly
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia


A SWOT analysis is a procedure generally carried out before the development of a business plan. It involves a detailed examination of the Strengths and Weaknesses of the organisation, and the Opportunities and Threats in the environment within which it operates. It is submitted here that the creation of a 21st Century Agenda for Peace through Tourism must be preceded by such an analysis. The Agenda may then be directed to building on the strengths, eliminating the weaknesses, taking advantage of the opportunities and avoiding or converting the threats. An examination of Tourism in the Peace context identifies three major areas of strength which may be termed scope, depth and influence. It must be noted that these strengths are frequently misused, and do not always work in the desired direction. Weaknesses relate to aspects of tourism which create hostility rather than harmony. Opportunities and threats are, or may become, present in the wider environment. This paper presents a preliminary SWOT analysis, and it is anticipated that Conference delegates will identify shortcomings to be corrected, propose additional items to be included, and suggest imaginative solutions to the problems raised. However, given the commitment of the Conference, the following conclusions are likely to be accepted: · That there are few, if any, alternatives to tourism as a generator of intercultural contact. · That the peace objectives will only be achieved by purposeful management of tourism directed to these ends. Recommendations stemming from the analysis should be directed to overcoming the weaknesses and converting threats to opportunities. For example, among other strategies, the paper proposes measures to enhance the host-visitor interaction and an integrationist approach based in political geographic theory.

Dr.M.Sharif Khan
Chairman Al-Hayat Travels-Tours - Pakistan


Pakistan and India have been at loggerheads for the last 52 years on the issue of Kashmir, which is a paradise on Earth for the tourists who visit from across the globe. Though this a political issue and can be solved through bilateral talks/dialogue or through third party mediation but because of innumerable pressure from within and outside there have been three wars between these two neighbours. These have resulted into nothing positive or constructive, in fact these have brought poverty and sufferings to the people who need prosperity the utmost. During the last two months or so there has been an unnecessary upheaval in Kashmir, which could have resulted into a disastrous situation but because of timely intervention and pressure by tourists and business community and international pressure forced both the governments to stop their war-like attitudes and restore peace. This tremendous pressure will not only facilitate tourism internationally as well as locally but will bring real prosperity amongst the two countries. We on this side of the border have put a lot of pressure on the government through Travel Agents Association to generate peace and tranquility so that tourists are encouraged to visit Kashmir and Northern Areas of Pakistan. Similarly, we are taking the issue with our counterparts in India, who manage Travels and Tourism to exert their maximum pressure as well so that tourists don't feel panicky while visiting their parts of Kashmir, thereby bringing prosperity to their poor people. Throughout this crises the bus service continued and PIA also continued their operations, which brought a lot of tourists and business community from across the borders. In Pakistan the Ministry of Tourists and Culture is headed by Mr.Mushhid Hussain Syed who is very is very strong and forceful. He has reactivated this Ministry because of realization that the greatest foreign exchange earner is the Tourist Industry and the biggest job opportunity will come in this sector. So, spread of tourism and encouragement to this sector is going to be the main aim of our government. Whereas, Travel and Tour Operators are going to play a major role which can bring real peace and prosperity to this part of the world.

Dr. Annette Lanjouw, Director
International Gorilla Conservation Programme (AWF, FFI and WWF) - Africa


With the crisis in the Great Lakes region, starting in 1990 and continuing uninterruptedly to this date, the countries sharing the Albertine Rift forests, and habitat of the endangered mountain gorilla, have had strained political relations. Transfrontier collaboration for the conservation of these endangered forests and their wildlife has had to adapt to the constantly changing political climate. Yet only with collaboration is it possible to envisage sustainable conservation, which ensures both the protection of the critical habitat, with its rich biodiversity, and the effective sharing of the benefits of conservation with the people living around these forested parks. Concurrently, the mechanisms that enable partners to achieve the common goal of conservation together also develop confidence, thus forming the foundations for peace. In this context, the transfrontier collaboration towards a common goal is seen as the operative force towards the development of peace in the region. Conservation of the environment is one of the sectors in which much has been achieved. Transfrontier collaboration has, to date, been effective only at field level, between the park staff in the three countries concerned (Uganda, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo). Joint planning, consultation and joint implementation of activities, such as training and monitoring, have continued throughout the war and refugee crises. With the support of partners, the three protected area authorities in these countries have built a strong collaborative programme for conservation. Tourism, and more specifically, true "ecotourism", has been a partially developed tool in all three countries, generating levels of income which have covered not only conservation costs, but also benefited the countries in a larger sense. The war and resulting insecurity in the region have seriously affected this industry. The political will is currently available for the development of true "regional tourism", whereby the three countries pool their resources for developing this potential. The development of a regional ecotourism programme would contribute towards the higher political objective of peace and stability in this region.

Dr. Peter van den Dungen
Department of Peace Studies University of Bradford- UK


The twentieth century has witnessed an impressive growth in the number of museums of all kinds which have been created world-wide.They have become an established part of the cultural landscape and the preferred destination of many tourists. Until recently, museums explicitly dedicated to the elimination of warfare - and to the celebration of the idea of world and communal peace, the lives of peacemakers, and the practice of nonviolent conflict resolution - have been conspicuous by their absence. This is in stark contrast to the numerous war museums, army museums and regimental museums that exist. This discrepancy seems to be an accurate reflection of the relative importance traditionally attached to "war" and "peace". The two defining events of our century - epitomised in the names of Hiroshima and Auschwitz - have inspired the establishment in recent decades of several anti-war and anti-genocide museums. They aim to keep alive the memory of these terrible events and to educate visitors about peaceful conflict resolution and human rights. Peace museums are potentially vital instruments for the promotion of a global culture of peace. As a result of a growth in their numbers, the closing decade of the century has seen the beginnings of an institutional co-operation that has been achieved through a series of global conferences, the creation of the International Network of Peace Museums (INPM), and the publication of an international newsletter and a UN directory of peace museums. Peace museums are an increasingly significant component of peace tourism.